Erik Champion

Interactive History & Digital Culture


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CFP: Heritage Across Borders,” Association for Critical Heritage Studies, 4th Biennial Conference

Call for Session Proposals: “Heritage Across Borders” Association for Critical Heritage Studies, 4th Biennial Conference

01-06 September 2018, Hangzhou, China

The global rise of heritage studies and the heritage industry in recent decades has been a story of crossing frontiers and transcending boundaries. The 2018 Association of Critical Heritage Studies conference, held in Hangzhou, China, thus takes ‘borders’ as a broadly defined, yet key, concept for better understanding how heritage is valued, preserved, politicised, mobilised, financed, planned and destroyed. Thinking through borders raises questions about theories of heritage, its methodologies of research, and where its boundaries lie with tourism, urban development, post-disaster recovery, collective identities, climate change, memory or violent conflict. Held in the city of Hangzhou, China, Heritage Across Borders will be the largest ever international conference in Asia dedicated to the topic of heritage. It has been conceived to connect

international participants with local issues, and in so doing open up debates about the rural-urban, east-west, tangible-intangible and other familiar divides.

Borders tell us much about the complex role heritage plays in societies around the world today. Historically speaking, physical and political borders have led to ideas about enclosed cultures, and

a language of cultural property and ownership which marches forward today in tension alongside ideals of universalism and the cosmopolitan. More people are moving across borders than ever before, with vastly different motivations and capacities. What role can heritage studies play in understanding the experiences of migrants or the plight of refugees? And what heritage futures do

we need to anticipate as the pressures of international tourism seem to relentlessly grow year by year?

Heritage Across Borders will consider how the values of heritage and approaches to conservation change as objects, experts, and institutions move across frontiers. It will ask how new international cultural policies alter creation, performance, and transmission for artists, craftspersons, musicians, and tradition-bearers.

What are the frontiers of cultural memory in times of rapid transformation? How can museums engage with increasingly diverse audiences by blurring the distinctions between the affective and

representational? And do digital reproductions cross important ethical boundaries?

One of the key contributions of critical heritage studies has been to draw attention to the role of heritage in constructing and operationalising boundaries and borders of many kinds

-national, social, cultural, ethnic, economic and political.

In what ways do international flows of capital rework indigenous and urban cultures, and reshape nature in ways that redefine existing

boundaries?

We especially welcome papers that challenge disciplinary boundaries and professional divides, and explore cross-border dialogues.

What lessons can be learned from Asia where the distinctions between the tangible and intangible are less well marked? And how can researchers bridge

cultural and linguistic barriers to better understand these nuances?

Organised by Zhejiang University this major international conference will be held in Hangzhou, China on16 September 2018

Please send your session proposals to the following email address: 2018achs by the 31st of March, 2017.

For more information please visit http://www.2018achs.com/#/


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Research Infrastructures

I found myself in a meeting yesterday on the above. It reminded me of the DH2014 workshop that I wrote the call for and then couldn’t get to go to.

The points below, I feel I have to return to:

1. What are the objectives of each digital infrastructure project, and what are its intended users?
2. What are the functionalities and outcomes it aims to provide, and how do they serve the overarching goal of supporting and transforming humanities research?
3. To what extent were the needs of humanities researchers considered, and how is the digital humanities research community involved in the project?
4. Are there potential synergies, and actual collaboration, with other infrastructure projects? Conversely, are there any overlaps?
5. What are the main lessons learned from the life of the project so far? What are the pitfalls and potential failures, and what improvements could be achieved?


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LUDIC PASTS workshop at DiGRA2017 Melbourne

LUDIC PASTS: “Game Simulations of Past Cultures and Places” Workshop

ORGANIZERS:

Erik Champion, Curtin University Australia, email erik.champion@curtin.edu.au
Michael Nitsche, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, email michael.nitsche@gatech.edu

The fusion of archaeology and gaming has become known as archaeogaming, although this term covers several approaches. For example, Reinhard (Reinhard 2015) wrote: “I had originally thought of Archaeogaming as a framework around studying how archaeology and archaeologists are portrayed by game developers, and how they are received by gamers. I was also curious to see how (or even if) I could apply real-world archaeological methods to virtual spaces, studying the material culture of the immaterial.” However, this is not simply a workshop about archaeogaming, there are other related fields interested in the ludic simulation of past places and past cultures (art history, museum studies, media studies, anthropology, sociology, urban design, geography, to name a few). There may be specific issues that distinguish, say heritage-based games (Champion 2015) from history-based games (Chapman 2016) but there are also common themes, authenticity, accuracy, imagination and how interaction helps learning.

Despite increasing interest in archaeogaming theory, there is little discussion of the field in terms of actual game design. And despite the increasing range and quality of courses (Schreiber 2009), books (Fullerton 2014) and presentations (Lewis-Evans 2012) on game design and game prototyping, there is still a paucity of available game design tools and techniques specifically for capturing and communicating the past (Manker 2012) (Neil 2016, 2015). In addition, we face a lack of venues for archaeogaming developers and related experts to present, pitch, playtest and perform their game prototypes (Ardito, Desolda, and Lanzilotti 2013, Unver and Taylor 2012, Ardito et al. 2009). Hence content experts in history and heritage-related fields often lack the experience or knowledge to test game ideas, and, conversely, game studies scholars may not be aware of discipline-related problems in history, heritage, museum studies and archaeology.

This half-day (4 hour) workshop brings together researchers and designers interested in evaluating and tackling issues in the simulation of past places, events and cultures through computer game interaction. The format will combine the presentations with a discussion centered on the question of how games can support cultural heritage. Each participant will present on a particular theme, challenge or case study.

We invite contributions from any domain, including game analysis, interaction design, digital humanities, play studies, among others. In the second part, we will identify key issues arising from the presentations and in small groups will suggest a game design scenario that could address the issue in an interesting way. We are also interested in theoretical papers that examine and suggest answers for issues in converting history, heritage and general archaeology projects into potential games.

SUBMISSION:

  1. Please email a one page proposal to champion@curtin.edu.au, with the title “DIGRA workshop-LUDIC PASTS-<your surname>”.
  2. Provide a short but descriptive title.
  3. A description of the issue that you wish to present, whether it is a theoretical theme, design challenge or case study
  4. Mention any examples that exist.
  5. Outline any potential solutions or ideas that you wish to discuss.
  6. Is there anything you would like to bring, show or demonstrate?
  7. In one short final paragraph please explain your related background, why this issue is significant to you and which audience would be interested in a potential solution, is it specific to a field or of wider interest and impact in game studies?
  8. Lastly include contact details, your name, job title and any affiliated institute or organization.

 DEADLINES:

  • 6 March 2017                      deadline for papers
  • 10 March 2017                    announce selected authors
  • 3 July 2017                            LUDIC PASTS workshop, DIGRA2017, MELBOURNE (http://digra2017.com/)

WORKSHOP GOALS:

  • Critical discussion from multiple related domains of archaeogaming.
  • Design sketches indicating possible approaches to address them.
  • We will discuss a potential shared book publication about the topic.

THE FORMAT AND ACTIVITIES PLANNED FOR THE WORKSHOP:

  • Individual presentations of key challenges.
  • Identify shared themes and concerns to form small groups developing game sketches for archeogaming and related fields.
  • Presentation of the concepts and conclusion.

WORKSHOP SCHEDULE (4 hour workshop, 240 minutes total):

  1. 160 minutes: 8 presentations, each a maximum of 20 minutes long (including questions).
  2. 60 minutes: work on game scenarios (scene) in one of 4 groups.
  3. 20 minutes: summarize and report findings to all attending.

POTENTIAL TOOLS:

Whiteboard, pen and paper. If there is a video projector or large screen, then digital game scenarios/sketches could be shown as well.

 AUDIENCE

  • Of interest to content experts in history and heritage-related fields, game studies scholars, game designers and developers.
  • Ideal size of audience: up to 32 not including the 8 speakers

PUBLICATION

We will discuss approaching a creative publisher (Liquid Books, University of Michigan Press or other) to provide an online or printable output of the demonstrations and the audience feedback.

 If you are interested in submitting a chapter, but cannot attend the workshop, please email the organizers a proposal similar to the 1 page workshop proposal outlined above.

CITATIONS AND REFERENCES

  1. Ardito, Carmelo, Paolo Buono, Maria Francesca Costabile, Rosa Lanzilotti, and Antonio Piccinno. 2009. “Enabling Interactive Exploration of Cultural Heritage: An Experience of Designing Systems for Mobile Devices.” Knowledge, Technology & Policy 22 (1):79-86. DOI: 10.1007/s12130-009-9079-7.
  2. Ardito, Carmelo, Giuseppe Desolda, and Rosa Lanzilotti. 2013. “Playing on large displays to foster children’s interest in archaeology.” DMS.
  3. Champion, E. 2015. Critical Gaming: Interactive History and Virtual Heritage.
  4. Chapman, A. 2016. Digital Games as History: How Videogames Represent the Past and Offer Access to Historical Practice.
  5. Fullerton, Tracy. 2014. Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games: CRC press.
  6. Lewis-Evans, Ben. 2012. “Introduction to Game Prototyping & research.” Slideshare, Last Modified 16 December 2012, accessed 24 January. http://www.slideshare.net/Gortag/game-prototyping-and-research.
  7. Manker, Jon. 2012. “Designscape–A suggested game design prototyping process tool.” Eludamos. Journal for computer game culture 6 (1):85-98.
  8. Neil, Katharine. 2015. “Game Design Tools: Can They Improve Game Design Practice?” PhD, Signal and Image processing. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers, CNAM.
  9. Neil, Katharine. 2016. How we design games now and why. Gamasutra. Accessed 24 January 2017.
  10. Reinhard, A., 2015. Excavating Atari: Where the Media was the Archaeology. Journal of Contemporary Archaeology, 2(1), pp.86-93.
  11. Schreiber, Ian. 2009. ““I just found this blog, what do I do?”.” Game Design Concepts – An experiment in game design and teaching, 9 September 2009. https://gamedesignconcepts.wordpress.com/2009/07/02/level-2-game-design-iteration-and-rapid-prototyping/.
  12. Unver, Ertu, and Andrew Taylor. 2012. “Virtual Stonehenge Reconstruction.” In Progress in Cultural Heritage Preservation: 4th International Conference, EuroMed 2012, Limassol, Cyprus, October 29 – November 3, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Marinos Ioannides, Dieter Fritsch, Johanna Leissner, Rob Davies, Fabio Remondino and Rossella Caffo, 449-460. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

TO CONTACT THE ORGANIZERS

Erik Champion, Curtin University Australia, email erik.champion@curtin.edu.au
Michael Nitsche, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, email michael.nitsche@gatech.edu

 


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Digra 2017 Workshop: Playtesting

This workshop proposal has only been provisionally accepted for Digra2017 international games conference in Melbourne Australia, on 3 July 2017, we need to convince the organisers on how it will run.

What do you suggest? It should be more generic, more hands on? More focused or more open and free-ranging? We’d love our CAA2017 participants to attend, but we’d also be more than happy if those who can’t attend Georgia Atlanta in March can attend this start of July, in Melbourne Australia (not Melbourne Florida!)

Playtesting, Prototyping & Pitching History & Heritage Games

This half-day workshop brings together history and heritage experts, interested game designers, and designers of game prototyping tools. The approach is to playtest each idea presented and provide an avenue for feedback by audience, organisers, and other presenters. It will follow on from a game mechanics workshop run at CAA2017 in Atlanta in March but will aim to extend and polish game prototypes.

Keywords

Playtesting, pitching, prototyping, archaeology, heritage, history, archaeogaming, serious games.

INTRODUCTION

In March 2017 in Georgia Atlanta for the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (http://caaconference.org/) conference, the two workshop organizers will run a session (Mechanics, Mods and Mashups: Games of the Past for the Future Designed by Archaeologists) on the initial topic, how to playtest pitch and present archaeology games. At DiGRA, with some of the initial presenters but also with new presenters, we will focus on how to pitch and prototype to and with game developers and potential clients, as well as how to perform game scenarios to reach new potential audiences and markets. The general field of research has become known as archaeogaming (Reinhard 2013), which “can include, but is in no means limited to: the physical excavation of video-game hardware, the use of archaeological methods within game worlds, the creation of video-games for or about archaeological practices and outcomes or the critical study of how archaeology is represented in video-games.(Wikipedia contributors 2016). There may be specific issues that distinguish heritage (Champion 2015) and history (Chapman 2016) games but there are also common themes, authenticity, accuracy, imagination and how interaction helps learning.

As it is for DiGRA, we are also interested in theoretical papers that examine and suggest answers for issues in converting history, heritage and general archaeology projects into potential games.

Relation to DiGRA themes: Game cultures; games and other cultural forms; communication in game worlds; games criticism; gaming in non-leisure settings; game studies in other domains; hybrid and non-digital games; history of games; game design.

The major objectives and expected outcomes of the workshop

Improved prototypes, enhanced critical discussion and feedback of prototypes, and potential open access book.

Justification for the workshop informed by current trends and research

Despite the increasing range of courses (Schreiber 2009), books (Fullerton 2014) and presentations (Lewis-Evans 2012) on game design prototyping, there is still a paucity of available game design prototype tools (Manker 2012) (Neil 2016, 2015) and a lack of venues for archaeogaming developers and related experts to present, pitch, playtest and perform their game prototypes (Ardito, Desolda, and Lanzilotti 2013, Unver and Taylor 2012, Ardito et al. 2009).

The format and activities planned for the workshop

Presentation and playtesting of games, feedback from audience and one of the other presenters.

Potential tools: Gameplay cards, game prototyping tools, scenes or videos from a 3D editor or game editor (Unity, Unreal, Blender), board games as prototypes, playing cards, physical artifacts that are role-played by the presenter, illustrations, slideshows, game editors (like the SIMS: https://www.thesims.com/en_GB) used to make films (Machinima), roleplaying videos, flowcharts, interactive fiction (like https://twinery.org/). We will provide a fuller list of tools and examples to potential attendees before the workshop.

The duration (half- or full-day) of the workshop

Half-day for 6 presenters.

The anticipated number of participants

Participants: 26 maximum (ideally) where 6 present. We require half an hour a presenter so three hours for 6 presenters, 6 hours a whole day if we want to go to 12 presenters. Ideally the non-presenting audience is not too large, preferably up to 20.

How participants will be recruited and selected

Via an online website we will create, and mailing to digital archaeology and heritage and serious games groups.

Publication plans arising from the workshop activities

We will approach a creative publisher (Liquid Books, University of Michigan Press or other) to provide an online or printable output of the demonstrations and the audience feedback.

Citations and References

Ardito, Carmelo, Paolo Buono, Maria Francesca Costabile, Rosa Lanzilotti, and Antonio Piccinno. 2009. “Enabling Interactive Exploration of Cultural Heritage: An Experience of Designing Systems for Mobile Devices.” Knowledge, Technology & Policy 22 (1):79-86. doi: 10.1007/s12130-009-9079-7.

Ardito, Carmelo, Giuseppe Desolda, and Rosa Lanzilotti. 2013. “Playing on large displays to foster children’s interest in archaeology.” DMS.

Champion, E. 2015. Critical Gaming: Interactive History and Virtual Heritage.

Chapman, A. 2016. Digital Games as History: How Videogames Represent the Past and Offer Access to Historical Practice.

Fullerton, Tracy. 2014. Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games: CRC press.

Lewis-Evans, Ben. 2012. “Introduction to Game Prototyping & research.” Slideshare, Last Modified 16 December 2012, accessed 24 January. http://www.slideshare.net/Gortag/game-prototyping-and-research.

Manker, Jon. 2012. “Designscape–A suggested game design prototyping process tool.” Eludamos. Journal for computer game culture 6 (1):85-98.

Neil, Katharine. 2015. “Game Design Tools: Can They Improve Game Design Practice?” PhD PhD, Signal and Image processing. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers, CNAM.

Neil, Katharine. 2016. How we design games now and why. Gamasutra. Accessed 24 January 2017.

Reinhard, A. 2013. “What is Archaeogaming?” archaeogaming, 24 January. https://archaeogaming.com/2013/06/09/what-is-archaeogaming/.

Schreiber, Ian. 2009. ““I just found this blog, what do I do?”.” Game Design Concepts – An experiment in game design and teaching, 9 September 2009. https://gamedesignconcepts.wordpress.com/2009/07/02/level-2-game-design-iteration-and-rapid-prototyping/.

Unver, Ertu, and Andrew Taylor. 2012. “Virtual Stonehenge Reconstruction.” In Progress in Cultural Heritage Preservation: 4th International Conference, EuroMed 2012, Limassol, Cyprus, October 29 – November 3, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Marinos Ioannides, Dieter Fritsch, Johanna Leissner, Rob Davies, Fabio Remondino and Rossella Caffo, 449-460. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Wikipedia contributors. 2016. “Archaeogaming.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 24 January. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Archaeogaming&oldid=729472193.


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CFPs

*START* DUE CONFERENCE THEME LOCATION
14-Mar-17 28-Oct-16 CAA2017 Digital Archaeologies Material Worlds (call for sessions) Atlanta Georgia USA
07-Jun-17 13-Feb-17 web3D world wide web 3D Brisbane Australia
15-Jun-17 15-Feb-17 CDH Centre of Digital Heritage Leiden Netherlands
26-Jun-17 01-Feb-17 ilrn2017 immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN) Special tracks Coimbra Portugal
03-Jul-17 26-Feb-17 DiGRA2017 Digital Games (workshops, papers due 26/02/2017) Melbourne Australia
04-Jul-17 03-Feb-17 Hypertext The 28th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Prague Czech Republic
08-Aug-17 17-Feb-17 DH2017 Digital humanities workshops: Access/Accès Montreal Canada
28-Aug-17 22-Mar-17 Simtech Australasian Simulation: People Energising Innovation Sydney Australia
28-Aug-17 01-Feb-17 CIPA 2017 Digital Workflows for Heritage Conservation Carleton Canada
30-Aug-17 27-Mar-17 DCH2017 Digital Cultural Heritage Berlin Germany
15-Sep-17 15-Feb-17 IM2017 Inclusive museum Manchester UK
25-Sep-17 13-Feb-17 ASA2017 Diverse Worlds, Australian Society of Archivists Melbourne Australia
25-Sep-17 31-Jan-17 Interact Interact Mumbai India
05-Oct-17 16-Feb-17 ECGBL 11th European Conference on Game Based Learning Graz Austria
07-Oct-17 SUI 2017 ACM Spatial User Interaction Portsmouth England
15-Oct-17 14-Apr-17 CHIPLAY17 CHIPLAY Amsterdam Netherlands
23-Oct-17 07-Apr-17 acm mm 25th ACM Conference on Multimedia Mountain View USA
02-Nov-17 ? HASTAC17 The Possible Worlds of Digital Humanities Orlando Florida
08-Nov-17 30-Jun-17 VRST Virtual Reality Software and Technology Gothenburg Sweden
13-Nov-17 12-May-17 ICMI 19th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction Glasgow Scotland
21-Apr-18 ? CHI2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Montreal, Canada
19-Jun-18 ? IDC2018 ACM Interaction Design and Children Trondheim, Norway
24-Jun-18 ? DH2018 Digital Humanities 2018 Mexico City, Mexico
12-Aug-18 ? SIGGRAPH18 SIGGRAPH Vancouver Canada
START *DUE* CONFERENCE THEME LOCATION
25-Sep-17 31-Jan-17 Interact Interact Mumbai India
26-Jun-17 01-Feb-17 ilrn2017 immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN) Special tracks Coimbra Portugal
28-Aug-17 01-Feb-17 CIPA 2017 Digital Workflows for Heritage Conservation Carleton Canada
04-Jul-17 03-Feb-17 Hypertext The 28th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Prague Czech Republic
07-Jun-17 13-Feb-17 web3D world wide web 3D Brisbane Australia
25-Sep-17 13-Feb-17 ASA2017 Diverse Worlds, Australian Society of Archivists Melbourne Australia
15-Jun-17 15-Feb-17 CDH Centre of Digital Heritage Leiden Netherlands
15-Sep-17 15-Feb-17 IM2017 Inclusive museum Manchester UK
05-Oct-17 16-Feb-17 ECGBL 11th European Conference on Game Based Learning Graz Austria
08-Aug-17 17-Feb-17 DH2017 Digital humanities workshops: Access/Accès Montreal Canada
03-Jul-17 26-Feb-17 DiGRA2017 Digital Games (workshops, papers due 26/02/2017) Melbourne Australia
28-Aug-17 22-Mar-17 Simtech Australasian Simulation: People Energising Innovation Sydney Australia
30-Aug-17 27-Mar-17 DCH2017 Digital Cultural Heritage Berlin Germany
23-Oct-17 07-Apr-17 acm mm 25th ACM Conference on Multimedia Mountain View USA
15-Oct-17 14-Apr-17 CHIPLAY17 CHIPLAY Amsterdam
13-Nov-17 12-May-17 ICMI 19th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction Glasgow Scotland
08-Nov-17 30-Jun-17 VRST Virtual Reality Software and Technology Gothenburg Sweden
02-Nov-17 ? HASTAC17 The Possible Worlds of Digital Humanities Orlando Florida
21-Apr-18 ? CHI2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Montreal, Canada
24-Jun-18 ? DH2018 Digital Humanities 2018 Mexico
12-Aug-18 ? SIGGRAPH18 SIGGRAPH Vancouver Canada
07-Oct-17 ? SUI 2017 ACM Spatial User Interaction Portsmouth England
19-Jun-18 ? IDC2018 ACM Interaction Design and Children Trondheim, Norway


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Draft schematic program for next 3+ years

  • 2017 Involvement in World Wide Web 2017 conference, Web3D conference, DiGRA conference, possibly host a workshop on Heritage Interfaces
  • 2018 Workshop on Virtual heritage tools
  • 2019 Workshop on Virtual heritage databases and portals
  • 2020 Workshop on Virtual heritage infrastructure/scholarly ecosytems

Longterm objectives

  1. Develop 3D database for eBook and journal
  2. Write tutorials and pathways for Game Engines (include Augmented Reality)
  3. Connect 3D models to library data
  4. Improve workflows between Geotools/GIS and 3D environments
  5. Create exemplars for digital heritage projects
20160620_103520


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notes about places

I’m writing a book,  DESIGNING THE ‘PLACE’ OF VIRTUAL SPACE, Indiana University Press, Spatial Humanities series.

Current planned book chapters

  • Place Theory Applied To Virtual Environments
  • Dead, Dying, Failed Worlds
  • How Mind Remembers Space, How Places Are Meaningful And Evocative
  • Place Affordances Of Virtual Environments Learnt From Affordances In Real Places
  • Place Interaction And Mechanics
  • Learning From Place
  • Place-Making Devices, Place-Finding Devices
  • Evaluation
  • Conclusion

My notes include the following:

  1. Place theory seldom clarifies different types of place features and different types of place genres, for example, fantasy places. There are places imaginative because they don’t clearly and explicitly relate to current place objects or interactive place relations, or imaginative because they don’t follow common sense, lived experience, or known physics. I don’t however know of a classification of them suitable to the design of virtual worlds.
  2. Such places are captivating but vague, what are the general affordances that mark them out as distinctive places but allow a variety of events and actions to take place?
  3. The place affordances of mobile places (tents, boats, stones, trailers) are seldom described but of great design interest to me. Where do I find this literature?
  4. Places are typically
    1. gathering (a center focusing or center-pulling away)
    2. the placing or gathering components are imaginatively or allegorically linked
    3. ecosystems
    4. related to other places
    5. allow a placing between the dynamic and the static (is there a better word than threshold?) This allows them to support creativity or allow time to imagine creativity..
    6. Depict a marking by or resistance to time (no, not exactly Kenneth Frampton’s architecture as heroic environmental resistance or critical regionalism theory). A place is a diary of us, a tapestry of meetings, of planned and spontaneous encounters.
  5. Place evaluation: places are very difficult to evaluate, to capture or to imitate. It is very difficult to observe a place without being there (and hence the appeal of phenomenology). For they are more network than tree, not linear and not directly observable.
  6. The levels of observable interaction are granular but of differing scale and not actually tailored directly to the scale and capabilities of a human observer, something we often forget when we design a virtual place, where everything is meant to be observed from and be seen to make sense from a human-height eye level. The layers and eddies of reality are infinitely complex. That does not mean that everything needs to be simulated or generated about that place.